The Meanings Behind “Harry Potter” Spells The spells at Hogwarts How did J.K. Rowling come up with the names of all of those magical wizarding spells? During a 2004 interview at the Edinburgh Book Festival, Rowling said: "Does anyone know where Avada Kedavra [the Killing Curse] came from? It is an ancient spell in Aramaic, and it is the original of abracadabra, which means 'let the thing be destroyed.' Originally, it was used to cure illness and the ‘thing’ was the illness, but I decided to make it the ‘thing’ as in the person standing in front of me. I take a lot of liberties with things like that. I twist them round and make them mine." Rowling studied French and Classics at the University of Exeter, and the names of most charms, curses, jinxes, and spells—from Accio to Sectumsempra—are based on Latin roots! Let’s look at the etymology, or "word origins," of the spells in the wizarding world—and where Latin ends and Rowling’s imagination begins. Accio The Summoning Charm, Accio, is used to bring an object to the caster. The Latin word accio means "I send for, summon (forth), fetch." In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry uses the Summoning Charm to call his Firebolt broomstick during the first task of the Triwizard Tournament: "It was time to do what he had to do … to focus his mind, entirely and absolutely, upon the thing that was his only chance …. He raised his wand. 'Accio Firebolt!' he shouted. And then he heard it, speeding through the air behind him; he turned and saw his Firebolt hurtling toward him …." Confundus Charm No need to be confounded—"perplexed or confused"—by the name of this charm! The Confundus Charm is a spell that causes confusion. A person who is affected by this charm is said to be Confunded. Confundus based on the Latin confundere, "to mix together, jumble, confuse, bewilder," source of English confounded and confuse. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Harry tells Hermione he knows she used the charm on Cormac McLaggen during Quidditch tryouts: "'If you ask me,' said Harry quietly, 'McLaggen looks like he was Confunded this morning. And he was standing right in front of where you were sitting.' Hermione blushed. 'Oh, all right then, I did it,' she whispered." Cruciatus Curse The Cruciatus Curse is one of the Unforgivable Curses because it inflicts intense pain on the recipient. The curse sounds like what it means: it’s a crucial spell meant to crucify its victim. Crucio in Latin means "I torment or torture." In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Voldemort uses the Cruciatus Curse on Harry: "Voldemort raised his wand, and before Harry could do anything to defend himself, before he could even move, he had been hit again by the Cruciatus Curse. The pain was so intense, so all-consuming, that he no longer knew where he was ..." Patronum To cast the Patronus Charm, wizards need to know expecto patronum—a defensive spell used to repel dark creatures, like Dementors. In Latin, expecto means "I wait," and patronus means "defender or protector." Do this spell correctly, and you can expect, or "feel confident," that your patron will appear. In this case, your patron isn’t a person who supports you with money or gifts, but an animal who shields you from harm. In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Professor Remus Lupin teaches Harry how to cast a Patronus Charm: "'And how do you conjure it?' [Harry asks] 'With an incantation, which will work only if you are concentrating with all your might, on a single, very happy memory.' [Lupin explains] 'The incantation is this'—Lupin cleared his throat, 'expecto patronum!'" Expelliarmus The Disarming Charm, Expelliarmus, is one of Harry’s favorite spells—it causes whatever your opponent is holding to fly away, and it can even knock out the person. In Latin, expello means "I expel, drive out" and arma means "defensive arms, armor." But may not event need to know those Latin roots of this charm to figure out that it expels, or "drives away," arms, or "weapons." In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Professor Gilderoy Lockhart and Professor Severus Snape demonstrate the spell to the dueling club: "Both of them swung their wands above their heads and pointed them at their opponent; Snape cried: Expelliarmus! There was a dazzling flash of scarlet light and Lockhart was blasted off his feet... 'Well, there you have it!' [Lockhart] said, tottering back onto the platform. 'That was a Disarming Charm—as you see, I’ve lost my wand...'” Obliviate The Memory Charm, Obliviate, erases the recipient’s memory. In Latin, oblivisci means "to forget, neglect" And, of course, its derived noun oblivion means "the state of being completely forgotten or unknown." In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Hermione Granger casts the spell on two Death Eaters (dark wizards) and a waitress: “'We just need to wipe their memories,' said Harry ... 'But I’ve never done a Memory Charm' [said Ron]. 'Nor have I,' said Hermione, 'but I know the theory.' She took a deep, calming breath, then pointed her wand at Dolohv’s forehead and said, 'Obliviate.'” Sectumsempra Sectumsempra is a dark spell, invented by Professor Severus Snape, that inflicts bloody gashes on the victim. In Latin, sectus means "cut off" and semper means "always." Think of how sect is used in the formation of compound words to mean "cut"—like in bisect, dissect, and even exsect. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Harry uses the curse on Draco Malfoy: "'SECTUMSEMPRA!' bellowed Harry from the floor, waving his wand wildly. Blood spurted from Malfoy’s face and chest as though he had been slashed with an invisible sword." Wingardium Leviosa The Levitation Charm, Wingardium Leviosa, is one of the first spells young wizards and witches learn. With a “swish and flick” hand motion, the magic words make an object rise. In Latin, arduus means "high, steep," and levis means "light in weight." In English, the verb wing means "to take flight." And most amateur and professional magicians have a levitation illusion in their repertoire—making an object or person float in the air—in their bag of tricks. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Ron Weasley casts the spell to save Hermione from a troll: "... Ron pulled out his own wand—not knowing what he was going to do he heard himself cry the first spell that came into his head: 'Wingardium Leviosa!' The club flew suddenly out of the troll’s hand, rose high, high up into the air, turned slowly over—and dropped, with a sickening crack, onto its owner’s head."