# calculus

[kal-kyuh-luh s]

- Mathematics. a method of calculation, especially one of several highly systematic methods of treating problems by a special system of algebraic notations, as differential or integral calculus.
- Pathology. a stone, or concretion, formed in the gallbladder, kidneys, or other parts of the body.
- Also called tartar. Dentistry. a hard, yellowish to brownish-black deposit on teeth formed largely through the mineralization of dead bacteria in dental plaques by the calcium salts in salivary secretions and subgingival transudates.
- calculation; estimation or computation: the calculus of political appeal.

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## Origin of calculus^{}

1610–20; < Latin: pebble, small stone (used in reckoning), equivalent to calc- (stem of calx stone) + -ulus -ule

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018

## Examples from the Web for calculus

### Contemporary Examples

#### With other emerging allies the calculus is trickier and leaves less margin for error.

#### Politics also played a role in the calculus of the Arab Muslims who supported ISIS.

On the Ground, Collaborators With ISIS Could Be Its Big WeaknessChristine van den Toorn

August 30, 2014

#### More significantly, the calculus of holding territory has now changed.

#### This calculus is loaded with all kinds of assumptions (which may in fact be true) about the ongoing prejudices of white America.

Oprah’s One of the Few People Rich Enough—And Safe Enough—to Buy the ClippersRobert Silverman

May 1, 2014

#### As a Jew committed to halakhah, I admit I do not understand this calculus.

### Historical Examples

#### Nor have we any form of calculus or computation that can easily be applied.

The Unsolved Riddle of Social JusticeStephen Leacock

#### Crushing of the calculus in the bladder, and removal piecemeal.

A Manual of the Operations of SurgeryJoseph Bell

#### Which, when the calculus is done,Quite demonstrates the Pole.

The Book of Humorous VerseVarious

#### Calculus—A stone found in the bladder, gall-ducts and kidneys.

Searchlights on Health: Light on Dark CornersB.G. Jefferis

#### Craig's works on the calculus brought him into controversy with them.

A Budget of Paradoxes, Volume I (of II)Augustus De Morgan

## calculus

- a branch of mathematics, developed independently by Newton and Leibniz. Both differential calculus and integral calculus are concerned with the effect on a function of an infinitesimal change in the independent variable as it tends to zero
- any mathematical system of calculation involving the use of symbols
- logic an uninterpreted formal systemCompare formal language (def. 2)
- plural -li (-ˌlaɪ) pathol a stonelike concretion of minerals and salts found in ducts or hollow organs of the body

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## Word Origin

C17: from Latin: pebble, stone used in reckoning, from calx small stone, counter

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

## Word Origin and History for calculus

### n.

1660s, from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used as a reckoning counter," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). Modern mathematical sense is a shortening of differential calculus. Also used from 1732 to mean kidney stones, etc., then generally for "concretion occurring accidentally in the animal body," such as dental plaque. Related: Calculous (adj.).

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Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper

## calculus

(kăl′kyə-ləs)- An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder.stone
- Dental tartar.

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The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

## calculus

[kăl′kyə-ləs]

- The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the differentiation and integration of functions of one or more variables. See more at calculus of variations differential calculus integral calculus.
- A solid mass, usually composed of inorganic material, formed in a cavity or tissue of the body. Calculi are most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder. Also called stone

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The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

## calculus

The branch of mathematics, usually studied after algebra, that provides a natural method for describing gradual change.

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## Note

Most modern sciences use calculus.

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.