penitentiary

[ pen-i-ten-shuh-ree ]
/ ˌpɛn ɪˈtɛn ʃə ri /

noun, plural pen·i·ten·tia·ries.

a place for imprisonment, reformatory discipline, or punishment, especially a prison maintained in the U.S. by a state or the federal government for serious offenders.
Roman Catholic Church. a tribunal in the Curia Romana, presided over by a cardinal (grand penitentiary), having jurisdiction over certain matters, as penance, confession, dispensation, absolution, and impediments, and dealing with questions of conscience reserved for the Holy See.

adjective

(of an offense) punishable by imprisonment in a penitentiary.
of, relating to, or intended for imprisonment, reformatory discipline, or punishment.

Origin of penitentiary

1375–1425; late Middle English penitenciarie priest who administers penance, prison < Medieval Latin pēnitēntiārius of penance. See penitence, -ary
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British Dictionary definitions for penitentiary

penitentiary

/ (ˌpɛnɪˈtɛnʃərɪ) /

noun plural -ries

(in the US and Canada) a state or federal prison: in Canada, esp a federal prison for offenders convicted of serious crimesSometimes shortened to: pen
RC Church
  1. a cleric appointed to supervise the administration of the sacrament of penance in a particular area
  2. a priest who has special faculties to absolve particularly grave sins
  3. a cardinal who presides over a tribunal that decides all matters affecting the sacrament of penance
  4. this tribunal itself

adjective

another word for penitential (def. 1)
US and Canadian (of an offence) punishable by imprisonment in a penitentiary

Word Origin for penitentiary

C15 (meaning also: an officer dealing with penances): from Medieval Latin poenitēntiārius, from Latin paenitēns penitent
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012