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Origin of fascism
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ABOUT THIS WORD
What does fascism mean?
Fascism is a system of government led by a dictator who typically rules by forcefully and often violently suppressing opposition and criticism, controlling all industry and commerce, and promoting nationalism and often racism.
The word is sometimes capitalized, especially when it specifically refers to the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini in Italy from 1922 to 1943, or authoritarian systems similar to his, including those of Adolf Hitler in Germany and Francisco Franco in Spain.
Fascism can also refer to an ideology based on this form of rule, or to the use of its methods. More broadly, fascism is used to refer to any ideology or movement seen as authoritarian, nationalistic, and extremely right wing, especially when fundamentally opposed to democracy and liberalism.
The term fascist can be a noun referring generally to someone who has such views, or, more specifically, to a member of such a government or movement. Fascist can also be used as an adjective describing something involving or promoting fascism.
Apart from their literal (and often capitalized) use to refer to the regime of Mussolini, the words fascism and fascist are typically used negatively as a criticism of such practices and ideologies—fascists typically avoid calling themselves fascists due to the negative history associated with the terms.
That history includes the rise of fascism in the 1920s and ’30s, the Holocaust perpetrated by Hitler and the Nazis, and other atrocities and oppression committed under fascist regimes. Interest in the history of fascism and the word itself has increased in the 21st century, along with a global rise of nationalism and movements associated with fascism.
Where does fascism come from?
The first records of the word fascism in English come from around the 1920s. It comes from the Italian fascismo, from fascio, meaning “political group.” Mussolini formed these small political groups into a political party, Partito Nazionale Fascista—the National Fascist Party. Fascism and the Italian fascio ultimately derive from the Latin fascis, meaning “bundle” (the plural form is fasces). In ancient Rome, fasces consisted of a bundle of rods with an axe blade sticking out. This was used as a symbol of a government official’s power. The Italian fascists brought back the fasces as a symbol of their brand of nationalism, which became known as fascism. The suffix -ism indicates a doctrine or set of principles.
As an ideology, fascism typically centers around extreme nationalism and an opposition to democracy and liberalism. In practice, fascism revolves around a ruler who uses absolute power to suppress the individual freedom of citizens, making everyone completely subject to the power of the state. To achieve this, fascism often uses violent methods for political ends. In the context of a fascist government, this often involves the use of the military against citizens.
Fascist leaders typically gain support by appealing to people’s nationalism and racism, especially by promoting suspicion or hatred of people that they label as foreigners or otherwise cast as illegitimate citizens—as Hitler did with the Jews in Germany. Such leaders often reinforce these themes among their followers with rallies and mass parades (developing what’s sometimes called a cult of personality).
Fascism is often considered a form of totalitarianism, in which the government controls almost every aspect of ordinary life. (Some left-wing forms of government, such as forms of communism, are also considered to be totalitarian.)
Today, the terms fascist and fascism are often applied in a general way to practices that resemble those of military dictatorships, especially when based on nationalism, racism, and authoritarian rule.
What is antifascism?
Antifascism is active opposition to fascism. Those who actively oppose fascism can be called antifascists. The first antifascist groups were those opposed to the rule of Mussolini, but there have been many others since then. The term antifascist is the basis of the word Antifa, which typically refers to a movement that opposes fascism.
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What are some other forms related to fascism?
What are some words that share a root or word element with fascism?
What are some words that often get used in discussing fascism?
How is fascism used in real life?
The word fascism is used in both specific and general ways to refer to fascist governments and the types of methods used by them. It’s typically used in a critical way due to the violence and racism associated with fascism.
“American fascist energies today are different from 1930s European fascism,” writes Sarah Churchwell. “But that doesn’t mean they’re not fascist, it means they’re not European and it’s not the 1930s.” https://t.co/kB0AUosyQE
— The New York Review of Books (@nybooks) June 23, 2020
Why did my grandfather choose to become a Fascist? He joined Mussolini’s party after returning from the front in WW1. I ask historian Gianluca Scroccu in my film ‘Fascism in the Family’. What was Fascism then and could it be resurfacing now?Details in thread #FascismInTheFamily pic.twitter.com/ofYHFBVPgE
— Barbara Serra (@BarbaraGSerra) June 27, 2020
Cowles’ “Looking for Trouble” is the best book you’ll ever find about the 1930s rise of fascism in Europe as it’s happening pic.twitter.com/sBNwnpIkeQ
— Pat Bagley (@Patbagley) June 16, 2020
How to use fascism in a sentence
The monarchy faced threats from communism on the left and fascism on the right.Amazon’s Divine Period Romance The Pursuit of Love Gives Classic Social Satire a Modern Twist|Judy Berman|July 30, 2021|Time
Byrne said he believes the 2020 election was a “soft coup” and part of a project by the political “far left” to bring fascism to America.Inside the ‘shadow reality world’ promoting the lie that the presidential election was stolen|Rosalind Helderman, Emma Brown, Tom Hamburger, Josh Dawsey|June 24, 2021|Washington Post
Josep Almudéver Mateu, the last-known survivor of the 35,000 foreign volunteers who joined the International Brigades to fight against fascism during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, died May 23 in a hospital near his home in Pamiers, France.
Other allegations of involvement by members of antifa — a loose-knit identity centered on opposition to fascism — were quickly debunked in the days after the attack.What does it mean that Republicans keep blaming the left for Jan. 6?|Philip Bump|May 28, 2021|Washington Post
In many ways, it was this moment of fascism that democratized the sneaker.
Which was the right thing to be, after all, because communism is as illiberal as fascism.Lauren Bacall Was Deeply Liberal and Deeply Anti-Communist|Michael Tomasky|August 13, 2014|DAILY BEAST
Weisberg writes about the Europeans that were flexible enough to accept Fascism as the new reality.
Can debates about right-wing philosophers encourage fascism?University College London’s Nietzsche Club Is Banned|Nico Hines|June 5, 2014|DAILY BEAST
The mirror-image systems of communism and fascism promised to solve problems quickly through command and control.
Therefore, Western supporters of the protests, like John Mccain, are agitating on behalf of violent Ukrainian fascism.
Franco is a fascist, and today fascism must triumph all over the world or be crushed forever.
It can grow and bring in the era of economic democracy, or it can falter and give way to fascism.
A Nazi bund to direct this propaganda was organized secretly because of the government's unfriendly attitude toward fascism.
First, she offered scholarships, with all expenses paid, for Nicaraguan students to study fascism in Italy.
The Double V campaign against fascism abroad and racism at home achieved considerably less than the activists had hoped.Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1965|Morris J. MacGregor, Jr.
British Dictionary definitions for fascism (1 of 2)
Word Origin for fascism
British Dictionary definitions for fascism (2 of 2)
Cultural definitions for fascism
A system of government that flourished in Europe from the 1920s to the end of World War II. Germany under Adolf Hitler, Italy under Mussolini, and Spain under Franco were all fascist states. As a rule, fascist governments are dominated by a dictator, who usually possesses a magnetic personality, wears a showy uniform, and rallies his followers by mass parades; appeals to strident nationalism; and promotes suspicion or hatred of both foreigners and “impure” people within his own nation, such as the Jews (see also Jews) in Germany. Although both communism and fascism are forms of totalitarianism, fascism does not demand state ownership of the means of production, nor is fascism committed to the achievement of economic equality. In theory, communism opposes the identification of government with a single charismatic leader (the “cult of personality”), which is the cornerstone of fascism. Whereas communists are considered left-wing, fascists are usually described as right-wing.