The noun succedaneum comes straight from New Latin succēdāneum, a noun use of the neuter singular adjective of Latin succēdāneus “following after, substituted, additional.” Succēdāneus is formed from the Latin verb succēdere “to move into a position below, move on upward, advance” (a compound of suc-, a form of sub– “under, below,” and the simple verb cēdere “to come, come up, proceed”) and the adjectival suffix –āneus, source of English –aneous. Succedaneum entered English in the 17th century.
What succedaneum of mutton chop or broiled ham she had for the roast duck and green peas which were to have been provided for the family dinner we will not particularly inquire. We may, however, imagine that she did not devote herself to her evening repast with any peculiar energy or appetite.
A painter, as I have said on another occasion, if possible, should paint all his studies, and consider drawing only as a succedaneum when colours are not at hand.
(used with a singular verb)
the scientific study of trees and their environment.
Silvics, an extremely rare noun, is a branch of forestry meaning “the scientific study of forest trees and their environment.” The word is formed from Latin silva “forest, woods, woodland, grove,” and the modern suffix –ics, which forms nouns denoting a body of facts or principles, like economics, physics, or politics. The suffix –ics is the plural of –ic and represents Latin –ica and Greek –iká, which form neuter plural nouns such as Latin mathēmatica and Greek mathēmatiká “mathematics.” Silvics entered English in the early 20th century.
They gained enough appreciation of silvics (in general, the study of how [a] tree grows) and arboriculture to know that trees change over time and that these changes must be understood, advocated for and included in the design of urban green spaces.
Although silvics had at its core an ideal of transforming the forest, it also offered a way of learning about the forest and making a connection between the individual and the wild nature out there.
a bundle; burden.
Fardel holds a place in the annals of classic literature for its use in Hamlet’s famous soliloquy: “who would fardels bear, / To grunt and sweat under a weary life …” Then again, in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), in the “duke’s” noble, sublime rendition of Hamlet’s soliloquy: “To be, or not to be; that is the bare bodkin / That makes calamity of so long life; / For who would fardels bear, till Birnam Wood do come to Dunsinane, / But that the fear of something after death / Murders the innocent sleep….” To bear fardels means to “carry burdens.” In Middle English fardel, also fardel(l)e, fardel(l), means “a pack of goods or supplies; a collection of bundles or packs; wrapping.” The Middle English forms come from Old French fardel, a diminutive of farde “burden.” The word most likely has its origin in Arabic fardah “single piece, package, bundle.” Fardel entered English in the 14th century.
who would fardels bear, / To grunt and sweat under a weary life …
Who can endure to leave the Future all unguessed, and sit tamely down to groan under the fardel of the Present? No, no!
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