Civil Rights Act of 1964
Remember that Civil Rights Act we talked about earlier? Well, after decades of protest, the Civil Rights movement led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a landmark piece of legislation that outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in voter registration, employment, and public accommodations, including officially ending racial segregation in schools.
The phrase civil rights itself is recorded in a translation of the Odyssey by George Chapman in 1614. Civil, here, means "concerning a citizen," and derives from the Latin civis, "citizen." We can find examples of civil rights in history, from the Roman Republic to the English Bill of Rights in 1689, a framework for the US Bill of Rights.
Today, civil rights refers to "the personal liberties established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the US Constitution and other Congressional acts, especially as applied to an individual or minority group, specifically Black citizens." This use of the phrase dates back to at least the 1940s.
While the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not put an end to discrimination, it paved the way for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (which outlawed discriminatory voting practices) and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (against discriminatory housing policies), and helped lead to the expansion of civil rights for other Americans, including people with disabilities.